CCIE HCIE exam summary of all important test center agreements
The development of the Internet has now become extremely large. The routing and switching protocols used in early network development no longer meet the current network scale and development speed. Today we will take a look at the routing and switching protocols commonly used in “from ancient times to the present”.
RIP dynamic routing protocol:
Routing Information Protocol (Routing Information Protocol, abbreviation: RIP) is the most widely used internal gateway protocol (IGP). The internal gateway protocol is a routing protocol used on the internal network. In a few cases, it can also be used to connect to the Internet network. It can continuously adapt the router to adapt to changes in the network connection through continuous exchange of information. This information includes each Which networks can the router reach, how far are these networks, etc. Although RIP is still often used, most people think it will and will be replaced by routing protocols such as OSPF and IS-IS. Of course, we also often see EIGRP, a routing protocol that belongs to the same basic protocol class as Distance Vector Routing Protocol (Distance Vector Routing Protocol), but is more adaptable and has also been used.
IGRP routing protocol:
The internal gateway routing protocol (English: Interior Gateway Routing Protocol, abbreviated as IGRP), which translates the inter-gateway routing protocol, is an internal gateway protocol that uses a distance vector algorithm. Provides a routing protocol in an autonomous system, a patent agreement developed by Cisco Systems. The algorithm is similar to the RIP protocol. Through user configuration, such as delay, bandwidth, reliability, and load are equal to the routing management performed by each router.
EIGRP routing protocol:
EIGRP: (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) is to enhance the interior gateway routing protocol. EIGRP is Cisco’s private protocol. EIGRP combines the link-state and distance vector routing protocol’s Cisco-specific protocol. It uses the dispersion correction algorithm (DUAL) to achieve rapid convergence. It does not need to send periodic routing update information to reduce bandwidth. Occupy, support multiple network layer protocols such as Appletalk, IP, Novell and NetWare.
OSPF routing protocol:
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a widely used dynamic routing protocol. It is a link-state routing protocol. It has fast route change convergence, no routing loops, and supports variable-length subnet masks. Advantages such as summarization and division of hierarchical areas. After using the OSPF protocol in the network, most routes will be calculated and generated by the OSPF protocol without manual configuration by the network administrator. When the network topology changes, the protocol can automatically calculate and correct the route, which greatly facilitates network management.
IS-IS routing protocol:
Intermediate system to intermediate system (IS-IS, Intermediate system to intermediate system) is an internal gateway protocol and one of the internal gateway protocols commonly used by telecom operators. The standard IS-IS protocol is standardized by the International Organization for Standardization. However, the standard IS-IS protocol is designed for connectionless network services and is not directly suitable for IP networks. Therefore, the Internet Engineering Task Force has developed an integrated IS-IS protocol that can be applied to IP networks, called integrated IS-IS. IS, which is regulated by RFC documents such as RFC 1195. Due to the ubiquitous existence of IP networks, the so-called IS-IS protocol generally refers to the integrated IS-IS protocol.
BGP inter-domain routing protocol:
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is an autonomous system routing protocol that runs on TCP. BGP is the only protocol used to handle networks as large as the Internet, and the only protocol that can properly handle multiple connections between unrelated routing domains. BGP is built on EGP’s experience. The main function of the BGP system is to exchange network reachable information with other BGP systems. The network reachability information includes the information of the listed autonomous system (AS). This information effectively constructs the topology diagram of AS interconnection and thus eliminates routing loops, and at the same time, policy decisions can be implemented at the AS level.
Virtual local area network VLAN:
A virtual local area network (VLAN) is a group of logical devices and users. These devices and users are not restricted by physical locations. They can be organized according to factors such as functions, departments, and applications. The communication between them is as if they are in It is the same in the same network segment, hence the name virtual LAN. Compared with the traditional local area network technology, VLAN technology is more flexible, it has the following advantages: reduced management overhead of network equipment movement, addition and modification; can control broadcast activities; can improve network security.
STP Spanning Tree Protocol:
Spanning Tree Protocol STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) prunes the ring network into a ring-free tree network to avoid the proliferation and infinite loops of messages in the ring network. In a complex network environment, loops will inevitably occur. Due to the need for redundant backup, network designers tend to deploy multiple physical links between devices, one of which is the primary link and the other links are used for backup, which may cause loops. The loop will cause a broadcast storm, which will eventually cause the entire network resource to be exhausted, and the network will be unavailable. In order to eliminate loops, you can use the data link layer protocol STP. Devices running this protocol discover loops in the network by exchanging information with each other, and selectively block a certain port. Finally, the ring network structure is pruned into loops The tree-shaped network structure of the road prevents the device from reducing the processing capacity due to repeated reception of the same message.
VLAN trunking protocol VTP:
VLAN trunking protocol, VTP, VLAN TRUNKING PROTOCOL, is a special protocol of CISCO, most switches support this protocol. VTP is responsible for synchronizing VLAN information within the VTP domain, so that it is not necessary to configure the same VLAN information on each switch. VTP also provides a mapping scheme so that communication flows can cross the backbone of mixed media. The most important role of VTP is to minimize configuration inconsistencies that may occur when making changes.
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