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R&S—How far is IPv6 (1)

First, understanding IPV6

When using the mobile app, I found that there is a small line “Supported IPv6” at the bottom of the welcome page. According to global IPv6 statistics released by Google, by the end of November 2018, the global IPv6 penetration rate has exceeded 25.04%, while China’s IPv6 penetration rate is only 2.93%.In 2019, both operators and Internet companies have begun to popularize IPv6 on a large scale. So what is IPv6?

When it comes to IPv6, you can’t help but mention the IPv4 protocol you are using now. “The father of the Internet” Wendun Joseph created the Internet communication protocol “IPv4” in 1977, allowing global computers to connect to each other. An IP address is a series of numbers assigned to each computer, website, or other networked device, and each IP address is unique. Since the IP address length specified in IPv4 is 32 bits, the rapid development of the Internet of Things has caused the current IPv4 address to be warned. As of June this year, China’s fixed-line Internet users are 751 million, mobile Internet users 724 million, but IPv4 addresses are 338.45 million, and the average IPv4 address per fixed-line Internet users in China is only 0.45.

IPv6 uses a 128-bit address length, which claims to be a website for every grain of the world. It is commonly known as the “next generation Internet.” In the design process of IPv6, in addition to solving the address shortage problem once and for all, it also considers other problems that are not well solved in IPv4, mainly end-to-end IP connection, quality of service (QoS), security, multicast, mobility, plug and play, etc.

Second, the advantages of IPv6:

Compared with IPV4, IPV6 has the following advantages:
    1. IPv6 has a larger address space. In IPv4, the IP address length is 32, and the maximum number of addresses is 2^32. But the length of the IP address in IPv6 is 128, that is, the maximum number of addresses is 2^128. Compared with the 32-bit address space, its address space has increased by 2^128-2^32.
    2. IPv6 uses a smaller routing table. Pv6 address allocation begins with the principle of aggregation. This allows the router to use Entry in the routing table to represent a subnet, greatly reducing the length of the routing table in the router, and improving the speed at which the router forwards packets.
    3. IPv6 adds enhanced multicast support and flow control. This makes the multimedia application on the network have a great opportunity to develop, also provides a good network platform for QoS control.
    4. IPv6 has added support for Auto Configuration. This is an improvement and extension of the DHCP protocol, making the management of the network (especially the local area network) more convenient and faster.
    5. IPv6 has higher security. In the IPv6 network, users can encrypt the data of the network layer and verify the IP packets. The encryption and authentication options in IPV6 provide the confidentiality and integrity of the packets. Greatly enhance the security of the network.
    6. Allow expansion. IPV6 allows the protocol to be extended if new technologies or applications are needed.
    7. A better head format. IPV6 uses a new header format with options that are separate from the base header and can be inserted between the base header and the upper layer data if needed. This simplifies and speeds up the routing process because most of the options do not need to be routed.
    8. new options. IPV6 has some new options to implement additional features

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